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N-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acid effect in periodontal disease: state of art and possible mechanisms involved

n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) reportedly combat inflammation. Studies examining gingivitis and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal disease (PD) show n-3 PUFAs inhibiting increased formation of arachidonic acid-derived inflammatory eicosanoids and augmented oxidative stress. This review examined other molecular factors which change as PD develops and which are affected by n-3 PUFAs in pathological settings other than PD. Three courses of action are strongly recommended: further experiments on animals with experimental PD and treated with n-3 PUFAs; long-term n-3 PUFA intervention studies on PD patients and molecular studies to identify additional molecular routes of n-3 PUFA action in PD.