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Cats and calcium oxalate: strategies for managing lower and upper tract stone disease.

Calcium oxalate (CaOx) containing stones are common in cats. Risk factors include breed, gender and diet. Management of cats with CaOx includes dietary and environmental changes. Increasing the cat's moisture intake is key to prevent recurrence. CaOx ureterolithiasis has emerged as a difficult and sometimes life-threatening problem for cats. It can be an incidental finding in which case periodic monitoring is all that is required to assess disease progression. For recurrent cases or cats with large stone burdens, ureteral stents can be placed. Studies designed to evaluate the dietary modifications, medical management, stress, obesity and surgical techniques are warranted in cats with upper and lower urinary tract CaOx stones.